Exploring Libertarianism

Libertarianism

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Get ready to dive into the world of Political Philosophy. Here, Individual Rights are more than important. They’re the foundation of true freedom. At the heart of libertarianism is a powerful message. It tells you to take control of your life, make your own choices, and shape your future. All without anyone else’s unwelcome control. Imagine living in a place where your personal and work-related freedoms are protected, like a huge umbrella1.

Joining this journey means exploring complex ideas with thinkers like Jason Brennan. He’s a guiding light in this sphere of thought. This adventure into politics, philosophy, and economics—often called “PPE”—helps libertarians defend themselves from too much meddling1. Engaging with works such as “The Routledge Handbook of Libertarianism” or Brennan’s writings sharpens your mind1.

But don’t just take our word for it. Experience the dynamic discussions and firm beliefs that come from valuing market solutions and the power of choice. These are core aspects that constantly emerge in libertarian discussions2.

Libertarianism is for those who desire less government intervention and lower taxes. Yet, it builds on essential rights, moral principles, and the kind of learning needed for true freedom today2. It welcomes you to enjoy its clear moral stance, where freedom isn’t restricted unless it’s to prevent harm to others’ rights2.

Key Takeaways

  • Libertarianism stands tall on the pillar of unyielding Individual Rights.
  • The ideology champions personal and economic freedom as untouchable liberties.
  • Iconic figures like Jason Brennan bring depth to libertarian scholarship and discourse1.
  • Asserting meaningful liberty may involve embracing essential societal elements like education, not traditionally prioritized by libertarian agendas2.
  • At the heart of the philosophy is the quest for a market-oriented society, promising efficiency and individual control over life’s outcomes2.

The Core Principles of Libertarianism

Welcome to the world where Self-Ownership and Individual Liberty are more than just ideas. They are the foundation of a political belief system. In the heart of Libertarianism lies the key value of autonomy. This means everyone has the right to govern themselves.

Individual Autonomy and Self-Ownership

Picture having control over your life, rights, and property without others butting in. This idea is central to libertarian thought on self-ownership. The idea was set in stone at the 1974 Libertarian Party Convention in Dallas. Their Statement of Principles confirmed self-governance as a main belief3. Libertarians echo the Fourth Amendment to protect privacy and demand clear government actions. They believe our homes and conversations should be private3. It’s about more than just choosing how to live. It’s about having the rights to what you work for—your property.

Non-Aggression Principle and Voluntaryism

In the libertarian view, violence is never the answer. The Non-Aggression Principle guides this belief. Only self-defense or fixing wrongs justify using force. This is why they strongly oppose the death penalty3. Voluntaryism is next—it’s about interactions without force or government intervention. Libertarians dream of a world where people interact freely, without government limits, no matter how many are involved3. This extends to opposing laws against victimless actions. Things like recreational drug use, gambling, and certain adult agreements are seen differently3. Libertarianism aims for a world where you can choose, act, and associate freely.

Economic Freedom and Private Property Rights

Ever think about a free-market economy where trade is free? That’s what Libertarians want. They see the government’s role as protecting—not controlling—trade and property rights3. They dislike government interference. No handouts or bailouts, just the market doing its thing4. Libertarians believe in community beyond government reach. They value family and community efforts over government aid4. They strongly support the right to self-defense, guaranteed by the Second Amendment, and stand against punishment for claiming this right3. That’s the libertarian view: free economy and secure private ownership.

What’s your take, dear reader? Do these ideas offer a path to more freedom, or are they too idealistic? Think about it. Libertarianism isn’t just politics. It stands for Non-Aggression Principle, Economic Liberty, Individual Liberty, and Private Property respect.

Historical Influences on Libertarian Thought

Walking through history, we see the deep roots of libertarianism in ancient philosophies. It’s shaped by many thinkers, each adding their unique view. Together, they’ve woven the complex ideas that make up today’s libertarian beliefs.

John Locke’s Natural Rights Theory

John Locke is a giant in libertarian history. His work on Natural Rights lit the spark for libertarian thought. He fought for the rights to life, liberty, and property. These rights are the foundation of how we see personal freedom. Recognizing Locke shows how vital his ideas are to libertarianism today.

The Classical Liberalism Continuum

Classical Liberalism is closely linked to libertarianism, focusing on limited state intervention and free economic cooperation. From Locke to Hume, through Adam Smith to Kant, these philosophers passed on the importance of freedom. Their ideas still inspire libertarians.

Origins and Evolution of Anarcho-Capitalism

At the radical end, Anarcho-Capitalism calls for ending the state’s role. It believes markets and private deals can manage society’s needs. This view fully supports a society without government, favoring free-market solutions.

Classic works describe libertarianism’s key values: property rights, free markets, and questioning authority. History shows its role in civil rights, highlighting its journey and diverse goals5.

“Libertarianism is not only a shelter for economic libertarians but also a sanctuary for those championing civil liberties and criminal justice reform, proving that its canopy is broad enough to offer shade to various factions within the liberty movement5.”

John Locke and the evolution of libertarian philosophy

Today, libertarians debate on economic and social issues. Topics like Big Tech’s power and immigration cause disagreements. Yet, the electoral outcomes show libertarianism is still strong6.

Regardless of current debates, libertarianism is more than a moment in politics. It’s a lasting philosophy aimed at improving lives and wealth, evident in “The Great Enrichment”6.

Libertarianism vs. Modern Political Movements

When comparing libertarianism with modern political movements, you notice a stark contrast. This philosophy stands out boldly against the use of state power. It’s like that friend who voices what others only think, making its views clearly known.

Modern politics often seem lost, but libertarianism offers a straightforward path. It champions less government intervention, saying “less is more”. Advocates believe in reducing state power7 and letting the market lead.

Remember David Boaz’s words: “Don’t hit other people, don’t take their stuff, and keep your promises.” These simple rules capture the libertarian spirit—a call for peace in a turbulent political world7.

In the political scene, libertarianism has seen its ups and downs. Since Ronald Reagan, its influence has grown within conservative circles. Movements like the Tea Party8 emerged. However, with figures like Donald Trump and Ron DeSantis, libertarianism watches from the sidelines8.

  1. Driving Force: Libertarianism rises again and again, seeking to reduce government overreach. Thinkers like Hayek and Nozick9 inspire this push.
  2. Modern Relevance: Libertarianism is gaining traction, especially among new House members. They want a government that knows its place9.

The heart of libertarian criticism reflects on modern politics and promotes freedom. It argues that freedom and property are key for society’s progress7. Despite challenges like pollution, it urges looking for trade-offs that respect moral values and freedoms7.

It’s time to consider what this means for you. Imagine policy changes where selective state actions improve lives without overreach7. It’s about strategic decision-making, rooted in lasting principles.

No matter your political stance, the libertarian view focuses on individualism and questioning authority. It encourages aiming for a society where freedom is guaranteed7.

The libertarian perspective remains vital amid the political noise. Its principles of liberty and property echo through time, aligning with core American values—regardless of the current leaders.

The Libertarian Perspective on Government’s Role

Imagine a place with little Government Coercion and a strong belief in “Live and Let Live.” This is the Libertarian State. Here, 57% of people understand libertarianism as loving individual freedom and fighting against too much government control10.

In this world, 11% of Americans truly live as libertarians. They hold Legal Rights high, with 56% thinking government shouldn’t control business too much10.

Looking closer, more college graduates are libertarians than those without degrees. About 15% of those with degrees support libertarianism, compared to 7% without. Also, a big 76% of them understand this philosophy well, unlike the 42% with only high school education10.

  1. Libertarians Reject Government Overreach
  2. Skeptical of Government Aid to the Poor
  3. Advocate for Legalizing Marijuana
Political View % Identifying as Libertarian
Independents 14%
Republicans 12%
Democrats 6%

Libertarians aren’t just on the Political Right. With 14% of independents and 12% of Republicans, and even 6% of Democrats, they’re everywhere. About 57% believe government aid does more harm than good for the poor10.

Liberty lovers also support legalizing marijuana, with 65% in favor. They value their freedoms but still see a role for the U.S. overseas10.

Though they make up about 5% of the population in one model, libertarians’ influence is big. They advocate for a society with less government control and more personal freedom10.

Libertarian Views on Law Enforcement and Defense

Libertarianism strongly supports a Minimal State Theory. This theory believes that National Defense, Law Enforcement, and courts are mainly what the state should handle. It’s interesting to note the difference in gun use by police in Britain and the U.S. British officers, with strict gun laws, rarely fired their guns last year, resulting in no deaths11. This is in sharp contrast to the U.S., where police shootings lead to about 400 deaths each year11.

Minimal State Theory and Law Enforcement

This approach focuses on the Defensive Use of Coercion. Police should protect citizens without intruding too far and risking our freedoms. People like Rand Paul and academics such as Tibor R. Machan at Auburn University support this view. They argue against broad federal gun laws1112.

Even with advanced training for police, there’s a debate on the need for so many guns among civilians. David Kopel and Radley Balko believe controlling police force and gun ownership are distinct issues. They say stricter gun laws won’t significantly reduce the current number of guns11.

Some think expanding background checks for handgun purchases could help. Yet, it’s debatable if this would really affect police militarization11.

There’s talk of finding common ground on police militarization without delving into the larger gun law debate. This suggests hope for agreement despite ongoing disagreements11. Thinkers like Ayn Rand and Murray Rothbard highlight a state’s role as a protector of personal rights, not a violator. This forms a complex base for libertarian views on governance and freedom12.

The main point for libertarians is defending individual rights, whether following the American or British system. They believe law enforcement’s role is to protect, not overpower. This vision supports a society where minimal government interference allows for maximum personal freedom.

Anarcho-Capitalism and its Vision for Society

Imagine ruling over your world, where every service, from police to judges, comes from the market. Anarcho-Capitalism envisions this. It champions order from the market’s invisible hand, not government force. Since 1969, when Murray Rothbard first introduced it, its goal has been clear: total freedom by ending the state13.

These libertarians are unique, intellectual pioneers. Their influence has grown from being a minor group to shaping U.S. politics significantly since Reagan’s presidency. Their focus? Spreading revolutionary ideas, not just gaining power. These ideas often challenge central authority8.

The Case for Private Law and Order

Without a state, how do we have order? The idea is we can privately manage protection ourselves. Picture an empowered neighborhood watch. It’s about being effective and ethical. History shows us, with examples from Argentina to Syria, that bold ideas can transform societies13.

Market-Based Security and Defense

In this vision, defense also gets a makeover from the market. Think of mercenaries as modern minutemen. Rothbard inspired this, and groups from antifa to Occupy Wall Street followed. They’re part of a movement desiring decentralized power13.

The Abolition of the State: A Path to Freedom?

Getting rid of the state isn’t just a dream. It’s about Americans wanting more freedom from their leaders. It reflects a desire for more liberty across political spectrums. The Libertarian Party gained attention in 2020, showing what’s possible when liberty leads14.

So, look into this vision, where you just call for services, skipping 911 for 1-800-FREE-MKT. Anarcho-Capitalism invites you to a place where your rights are top priority, and the state? It’s just a note in history.

Understanding Minarchism: A Minimalist State Approach

Welcome to the vibrant world of political thought. Here, “less is more” is more than just a saying—it’s the core idea. Dive into Minarchism, where a Limited Government focuses on Protection of Rights. Giants like Ayn Rand, Robert Nozick, and John Hospers champion this view. They argue for a government limited to essential roles15.

Limited Government

Essential Functions of a Minarchist State

Picture a state trimmed to its core duties. Its main goal is defending against aggression, theft, and contract breaches. Here, the government keeps to the basics in ensuring freedoms. You see a government that prioritizes constraint.

Limits of Government: Protection Without Overreach

How does such a government define its boundaries? In this world, interference is minimal—policy dictates it. The government’s power is recognized but strictly controlled. This safeguards individual rights without unnecessary intrusion15.

Examining Nozick’s Framework for Utopia

Nozick’s dream offers a minimalist approach to governance. In his vision, your rights are paramount; his framework uses governance subtly to protect without overwhelming. Robert Nozick suggests a society where freedom is sacred. It’s a place where you craft your destiny, supported, but not hindered, by a minarchist government15.

This idea, established since its 2002 online debut15, speaks to those desiring minimal yet effective governance. It empowers you, ensuring your freedoms under a watchful, yet limited, state.

Libertarianism and the Free Market Economy

Welcome to the thrilling world of the free-market economy, the place where dreams feast on the possibilities of Capitalism. It’s a world where the concepts of Voluntary Exchange and Free Trade stand strong, all under the watchful eye of Libertarianism. This philosophy pushes for the smallest government footprint in the business world.

Picture a place where your own smarts and determination shape your future, not outside forces. Social obstacles hardly exist when you’re free to act. This is Social Freedom, a key idea in libertarianism. It means acting without barriers others might put up, like money or social status16.

Libertarianism empowers you with a choice, shielding you from society’s boxes16. Think of it as owning a barrier against social blocks, letting you thrive in a vibrant free-market economy16.

Consider the giants of economic thought, like Milton Friedman. He championed a market without union or regulatory constraints and questioned the Federal Reserve17. His famous 1970 New York Times piece argued that businesses should focus on profit-making17.

Markets have their ups and downs. Barry Goldwater, with Friedman’s support, brought these ideas into politics in 1964. Though they didn’t win, their concepts remained, shaping political and economic discussions17.

Free-Market Economy

Key Concept Libertarian Perspective Implications in Free-Market Economy
Voluntary Exchange Individuals should interact freely without government hindrance. Robust market dynamics, propelled by open negotiation and agreements.
Free Trade International borders should not restrict commerce. Cross-pollination of innovation, widening the horizon of availability and choice.
Private Property Security Property rights are sacrosanct as the foundation of wealth and autonomy. Stimulates investment and stewardship, cementing economic stability.
Minimal Regulations Limiting the scope of government powers to interfere in the marketplace. Encourages entrepreneurial ventures and limits bureaucratic delay.

This is your invitation to an economic system where the government watches, rather than controls. Your skills and insight steer your path on this road to success. So, it’s time to take charge and dive into the free-market economy.

Social Liberties and Individual Rights in Libertarian Thought

Where can you drive your life freely without state rules always in your way? Enter the world of libertarian ideas, where your rights mean everything. Here, freedom and individual power shine brightly. Thinkers like John Locke and Adam Smith have influenced this view. Their ideas stress civil rights and speaking your mind freely18.

Freedom of Speech and Expression

Imagine a place where no one silences you. Libertarians defend this dream passionately. They believe in sharing your thoughts freely, no matter what they are. It’s a place where your words can make a difference, free from censorship18.

The Right to Life, Liberty, and Property

Libertarianism’s anthem celebrates life, freedom, and owning things. These aren’t just old ideas; they’re beliefs that shape our lives. At its heart, libertarianism loves a free market. It’s about people freely living their lives and making their own choices18.

Civil Rights and the Non-Interference Principle

Join libertarians in the quest for civil rights, heading not towards the government but away from it. Freedom to live your life as you wish is key, without stepping on others’ rights. This idea draws from thinkers like Locke and Kant. They envision a society rich in freedoms and low on force1819.

In this libertarian view, you’re in charge of your destiny. Your freedom song doesn’t need the state’s backup. It’s a solo tune that matches the libertarian spirit. It’s all about living freely, enjoying rights, and expressing yourself18.

Political Philosophy and Libertarian Ethics

Welcome to a world where personal freedom and societal progress intersect. Libertarian ethics and political philosophy blend here. It’s a place that values individual responsibility and moral foundations. These are vital for a thriving community. As you explore libertarianism, you become both learner and instructor. You’ll grasp and share the ideals that shape this philosophical viewpoint.

Moral Foundations of Libertarianism

Dive into libertarian ethics, highlighted by objectivism, anarcho-capitalism, and minarchism. These are key elements in its broad spectrum . Libertarianism celebrates personal freedom, respects private property, and upholds the non-aggression principle20. Its roots extend back to the enlightenment era of the 17th and 18th centuries21. The core belief is crystal clear: starting violence is always wrong—non-negotiable, non-aggression20.

The Confluence of Personal and Economic Ethics

Mix personal integrity with economic savvy to find libertarianism’s core supports. It envisions society as a whole entity defined by liberty21. A free market economy, powered by voluntary actions instead of forced taxes, fuels this minimal state20. This view isn’t just economic; it’s a celebration where moral and economic values dance together.

Responsibility and the Individual in Society

Embracing responsibility is pivotal in the libertarian journey. It’s like a sincere commitment, showcasing the individual as the hero. Libertarians value self-reliance and liberty, avoiding impulsive decisions21. From America’s streets to Italy’s squares and Argentina’s lively paths, libertarianism shows its colors. It respects both state and personal authority, always cherishing freedom22.

In this world of independence, stand with those who know true freedom brings real responsibility.

Branch Values Main Proponents Key Principles
Objectivism Individual Freedom Ayn Rand Private Property, Free Market
Anarcho-Capitalism Non-Aggression Murray Rothbard Private Property, Voluntarism
Minarchism Minimal Government Robert Nozick Impartial Law Enforcement, Voluntary Contributions

Challenging the Libertarian Paradigm: Common Criticisms

In the world of political debate, libertarianism often faces critique. Critics point out its strong resistance to economic regulation and redistribution of wealth. They worry this could lead to big inequalities without government oversight23. Let’s take a closer look at these arguments with facts and some humor.

The push for environmental protection back in the 60s is remembered by many. Some say modern regulations fail like past economic controls did24. Libertarians argue these outcomes are costly and inefficient. They support free-market solutions for the environment instead25. They suggest that managing resources through ownership and trade works better. This includes water rights and fish stocks, rather than government control24. Yet, doubts remain, especially with complex problems like air pollution25.

Libertarians think market strategies, like taxes on pollution, can solve these issues24. Expanding these ideas to tackle bigger environmental problems is challenging. Free-market advocates are trying to apply these solutions more widely24.

Criticism Libertarian Response Outcome
Rising socio-economic inequalities without intervention Liberty and basic freedoms are sacrosanct, trumping coercive redistribution23 Ongoing debate; inequalities persist but so does libertarianism
Inefficient government environmental regulations Government regulation suffers from market failures; property rights ensure better maintenance25 Shift towards market-based environmental strategies
Government’s increasing presence in society Stressing libertarianism’s commitment to minimize government footprint23 Mixed results as government roles continue to ebb and flow
Libertarianism’s adaptability to current societal needs Libertarian critique stresses the importance of updating political orders to sustain basic freedoms23 Continuous evolution of libertarian thought in response to societal changes

Views on libertarianism are split; some admire its focus on freedom, others see it as outdated23. Take California as an example. They found a way to cut costs and reduce prison overcrowding, showing flexibility can produce results23. The debate over student loans raises more questions. It questions if libertarianism can address today’s education and success link23.

Here we have a thorough look at libertarian criticism. It examines the philosophy’s limits in minimizing government and sticking to market solutions2524. Yet, finding market-based solutions for all environmental and resource issues remains a big challenge for libertarians.

The Impact of Libertarianism on American Politics

Imagine being in the heart of American politics. Here, libertarianism’s effect is as clear as the air you breathe. Though not always visible, it shapes government policy and shakes up American politics26. The ideology stands for minimal government interference and strong individual rights26. Libertarianism makes its mark everywhere. From Washington’s busy halls to lively town hall debates.

The Tea Party movement shows libertarianism in action, introducing a wave of anti-government feeling27. Libertarian political parties may not have shaken up elections big time. Yet, their ideas have spread widely among political conservatives27. People like Alan Greenspan have pushed libertarian economics. This has influenced policy in the U.S. and the UK27.

Libertarian influence reaches beyond big government decisions. It appears in research areas like telecommunications and bioethics, sneaking into new advances27. Even so, critics question libertarian ideals, raising issues like inequality and environmental harm. They challenge the view that property rights can solve everything27.

In the U.S., right-libertarianism dominates. Icons like Murray Rothbard and Robert Nozick have shaped its core beliefs28. They preach that less government means better government26. The Libertarian Party echoes this, starting in 1971 with leaders like David Nolan and Ron Paul28.

Not every libertarian thinks alike, though. Left-libertarians, like Hillel Steiner and Peter Vallentyne, tell a different story28. There’s also anarchism and libertarian socialism, adding variety28. Murray Bookchin promotes libertarian socialism, calling the left to adopt its values28.

Now, let’s lay out the stats in a dashing tableau:

Strand of Libertarianism Key Champions Political Pronunciation
Right-libertarianism Murray Rothbard, Robert Nozick Minimal state intervention
Libertarian Party Impact David Nolan, Ron Paul Historical milestones in advocacy
Left-libertarianism Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne Social justice harmonized with liberty
Anarchism and Libertarian Socialism Murray Bookchin Radical reimagining of social order

Libertarianism has left its mark on American politics, reminding us of the quest for freedom against the pull of government power2628. Remember these key points about libertarian impact. They’re key to grasping the ongoing dance between ideology and policy in our political life27.

Conclusion

When you think about political beliefs, you can’t miss libertarianism. It champions individual rights and wants the government to do less. This way of thinking has roots in the ideas of big thinkers like Adam Smith. It shows how classical liberalism is still present today1. Libertarians always challenge modern government. They ask how much power it should have over personal freedom1.

In America’s history, libertarian ideas played a big role. The American Revolution was a start of freedom. It put libertarian values at the heart of America’s laws29. Over time, views on free markets have shifted. After World War II, people started liking social welfare programs more29. But, facing threats to freedom, people like Ludwig von Mises stood up for private property and individual rights. This highlights how libertarianism is linked to fighting for a free life29.

Understanding these ideas is not just for school. It shows how important the fight for individual rights is in our society. Jason Brennan, who works at Georgetown University, reminds us that libertarian thoughts are still important today1. Libertarianism keeps asking how much power the state should have over the individual. It influences how we think about politics.

FAQ

What is libertarianism?

Libertarianism champions the rights and freedoms of individuals. It argues that the government should barely intervene in our personal and economic lives. This belief is grounded in ideas like owning oneself, avoiding harm to others, and the right to property. Libertarians believe we all should have the freedom to live our lives as we wish, without the state’s heavy hand.

How do libertarians view the role of the government?

Libertarians see the government’s role as small, focusing mostly on protecting our rights to life, liberty, and property. They picture a minimal government that sticks to defense, law enforcement, and courts. This government would stay out of the economy, social services, and personal freedoms.

Who were the historical figures central to the development of libertarian thought?

John Locke was crucial to libertarian thought, especially with his natural rights theory. He inspired the libertarian focus on freedom and property rights. Other big names in classical liberalism like David Hume, Adam Smith, and Immanuel Kant also helped shape libertarian ideas over time.

What distinguishes libertarianism from modern political movements?

Libertarianism is unique for its strong stance against big government. This sets it apart from many current political movements that support more government control over economy and society. Libertarians highlight the dangers of too much government and put individual freedom first.

Can you explain the non-aggression principle?

Think of the non-aggression principle as libertarianism’s golden rule. It means don’t harm others unless it’s for self-defense or to correct a wrong. This principle is all about voluntary interactions and respecting everyone’s independence.

What is anarcho-capitalism?

Anarcho-capitalism takes libertarian views to the extreme, calling for an end to the state. It argues that private businesses and markets can handle everything the government does now, like law enforcement and national defense. This would lead to a society run on voluntary deals and private agreements.

What is the libertarian position on free market and economic regulation?

Libertarians love a free, uncontrolled market. They believe it’s the best and fairest way to run an economy. They’re against government meddling like subsidies or rules because they say a free market encourages new ideas, competition, and personal success.

How does libertarianism address social issues like freedom of speech?

For libertarians, freedoms like speech and expression are critical. They argue everyone should speak their mind freely, without government stopping them. But, they also believe in not violating others’ rights with this freedom.

What moral philosophies influence libertarian ethics?

Libertarian ethics are influenced by both deontology and consequentialism. Deontology focuses on individual duties and actions’ righteousness. Consequentialism looks at the results of actions. The main idea is the importance of individual freedom and self-rule.

What are some common criticisms of libertarianism?

Critics say libertarianism might ignore market failures and social inequality, and miss out on collective wellbeing. They worry about neglecting societal issues and possible exploitation. However, libertarians respond by highlighting the importance of freedom and the market’s potential to fix these issues through free enterprise and charity.

How has libertarianism influenced American politics?

Libertarianism has left a strong mark on American politics by challenging government size and advocating for more personal and economic freedom. It has influenced policies from taxes to drug laws. You can see its principles in the push for less government control.

Source Links

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  8. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2023/06/05/the-individualists-radicals-reactionaries-and-the-struggle-for-the-soul-of-libertarianism-book-review-matt-zwolinski-john-tomasi
  9. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/libertarians-flex-their-muscle-in-the-gop/2013/07/31/dbc4dd40-f9ea-11e2-8752-b41d7ed1f685_story.html
  10. https://www.pewresearch.org/short-reads/2014/08/25/in-search-of-libertarians/
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  12. https://www.heritage.org/political-process/report/passionate-defense-libertarianism
  13. https://www.thenation.com/article/politics/bookchin-rothbard-anarcho-capitalism/
  14. https://www.econlib.org/too-principled-to-win/
  15. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.2202/1145-6396.1077/html
  16. https://www.princeton.edu/~ppettit/papers/Freedom_in_the_Market_PPE.pdf
  17. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/11/business/dealbook/milton-friedman-free-markets.html
  18. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/libertarianism/
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  20. https://www.learnliberty.org/blog/what-are-the-origins-of-libertarianism/
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3424229/
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarianism
  23. https://blog.joelonsdale.com/p/libertarianism-is-dysfunctional-but
  24. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2017/08/18/libertarianism-and-environmental-protection/
  25. https://reason.com/volokh/2017/08/18/libertarianism-and-environment/
  26. https://iep.utm.edu/libertar/
  27. https://www.britannica.com/topic/libertarianism-politics/Contemporary-libertarianism
  28. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarianism_in_the_United_States
  29. https://www.britannica.com/topic/libertarianism-politics/Historical-origins

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