Understanding Blockchain: A Comprehensive Guide

Blockchain Technology

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Jump into the exciting world of blockchain, where secure, unbreakable digital links create a new level of trust in technology. Your journey to understanding blockchain begins here. Starting with Bitcoin’s creation, blockchain has spread its influence far and wide.1 It acts as a strong, decentralized, and distributed ledger system. Through this guide, you’ll see how blockchain is the basis for future breakthroughs. It combines cryptography with transparent transactions.1

Key Takeaways

  • The genesis of blockchain began with Bitcoin, offering a peek into the potential of decentralized finance1.
  • Blockchain technology ensures your transactions are immovable once etched in the digital ledger2.
  • Understanding blockchain is essential for discerning its application across sectors1.
  • Smart contracts on blockchain automate business dealings with steadfast rules2.
  • Organizations need a stout strategy to shield blockchain endeavors2.
  • A variety of blockchain types allows you to tailor the tech to your privacy and control needs2.
  • Blockchain’s comprehensive guide is the bridge between curiosity and informed implementation1.

Demystifying Blockchain Technology

Looking into the future, your eyes land on blockchain, the foundation of digital dealings. You’re familiar with the hype. But, what’s really going on with this decentralized ledger technology? Within each block of the Bitcoin network, there’s a secure stash of transactions not exceeding one megabyte. This ensures everything stays in perfect order3. Picture a network of computers, known as nodes. They use their power to solve complex problems, confirming transactions in a way that’s super secure3.

What is Blockchain Technology?

Diving into how blockchain works, it’s a system so secure that hackers would need to control more than half of all nodes to breach it. This task is extremely hard3. Imagine decentralized networks removing the need for central servers. This cuts out middlemen, making hacking incredibly difficult. It’s like looking for a needle in a huge internet-sized haystack3.

The Backbone of Cryptocurrencies

Take a journey back to the 90s with Stuart Haber, who began securing block chains with cryptography. For a real-time view of blockchain, visit https://blockchain.info/. It showcases Bitcoin transactions with lasting precision3.

Blockchain: Beyond Bitcoin

Blockchain technology started with Bitcoin but didn’t stop there. It’s predicted to revolutionize many industries, from finance to arts4. Each secure transaction hints at future changes across various sectors, showing its vast potential4.

Blockchain has ignited a thirst for knowledge. By March 8, 2018, American University Washington College of Law wanted to unravel its mysteries4. They aim to enhance career prospects by deeply understanding blockchain through a special group4. This group focuses on educating and clearing up any confusion around blockchain4.

Franco re-enters the world of regulations with a summer internship. He and others plan to invite experts to share knowledge through insightful events4.

On April 11, alumni will gather to discuss blockchain and cryptocurrency. Don’t miss out. Email your interest by April 74.

As you reflect on these insights, remember that in blockchain’s realm, knowing your stuff is like striking gold.

The Genesis of Blockchain Technology

Imagine a world with safe, see-through, and shared digital dealings. That was Satoshi Nakamoto’s vision in 2008 with a trailblazing white paper5. Dressed in secret codes, blockchain was born to change how we use digital money6. The journey took a big turn when Bitcoin showed up, flipping finance on its head6.

Bitcoin introduction

Did you hear? Bitcoin, the first use of this big idea, came out in 2009. Nakamoto created the first block with 50 bitcoin, starting a new financial era5. But blockchain isn’t just about Bitcoin. It paved new ways, like Ethereum with its smart deals in the blockchain5. Can you believe someone spent 10,000 bitcoin on two pizzas in 2010? That was a super expensive meal and a big moment for blockchain6!

The start grabs your attention, but the real excitement is the surge in blockchain interest since 2016. Governments, big companies, and smart groups saw its worth beyond just money6. They all came together, creating platforms that changed what blockchain could do6.

But let’s remember the pioneers of blockchain. In 1979, Ralph Merkle made the Merkle tree to check record truths6. David Chaum, in 1982, imagined a system for digital cash6. By 1991, Haber and Stornetta were setting up a way to keep digital files safe from tampering. This idea helped start Nakamoto’s blockchain5.

Now, consider this journey. From early code ideas in the ’70s to a global system for digital cash – blockchain is a story of creativity and vision. Whether trading pizza for bitcoin or using Ethereum for contracts, you’re part of a system changing how we trust and share online. You’re seeing the story of blockchain unfold, a story that keeps on inspiring and challenging our ideas of digital deals and more.

Blockchain Technology: The Architecture

Exploring blockchain shows it’s more than just a trend. It’s a growing technology with a complex design. Its structure is both strong and detailed, showing it’s more than just popular words.

Understanding Blocks and Chains

Blockchain is like a digital book, with each page being a block full of transactions. Once written, it’s permanent. These blocks are linked in order, creating a long chain of secure data. A search in Scopus’s database shows over 28,600 talks about ‘blockchain’, highlighting its growing interest since 20177.

The Role of Decentralization

Decentralization is key when talking about blockchain. It spreads control across many nodes, not just one place. This spread means better safety and open information. Over 99% of blockchain studies have popped up in the last five years7. Projects like IBM Food Trust and Everledger use blockchain’s decentralized power for solving issues in food sustainability and checking assets8.

Distributed Ledger Explained

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is a big part of blockchain that removes the need for one controlling authority. Imagine a document shared across many computers, all having the same up-to-date copy. This setup is changing how we see openness and sharing. The ISO outlines a six-layer framework for these systems, ensuring they work smoothly8.

Looking closer at the architecture, we see designs like Zhang and co.’s four-layer structure for data privacy in blockchain. These designs are in use in platforms like Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric. They show a stacked system that enhances everything from security to programming, showing blockchain’s innovative spirit8.

Adding blocks and distributed ledgers does more than help with trades; it’s changing our view of safety, openness, and decentralized data flow. This evolving story is seen in the growth and improvements in blockchain’s design, highlighted in top-30 keywords from Scopus documents7. What started as a small idea is now a huge field of study, powering industries and marking the start of a new digital era.

How Blockchain is Reinventing Security and Trust

When you think of blockchain integrity and trustworthiness, look beyond just financial elites. Consider how encryption shapes trust in our economy. In our digital world, blockchain acts as a trusted guard. It ensures that once data is entered, it’s secured for good, like a star in the sky9.

The heart of this security decentralized security is public-private key cryptography. It creates a security web so tight that not even the smartest hacker can break through it9. Now, imagine a world where you can deal with money globally without middlemen. With blockchain, this world is yours. Every transaction and vote is protected by advanced security mechanisms9.

Think about blockchain’s impact — from cryptocurrencies making waves to smart contracts changing real estate. It lets you trace products to their origin, beating fake goods9. It also allows healthcare providers to handle your personal health info carefully and privately9.

Industry Blockchain Application Impact
Finance Cryptocurrency, Digital Payments, Smart Contracts Changing how we manage and invest money9
Supply Chain Management Traceability, Authenticity, Logistics Making things more efficient and transparent, and reducing fraud9
Healthcare Secure Health Data Management Keeping patient info safe and making medical records easy to get9

Blockchain goes beyond borders, improving money transfers and access to financial services. It gives people the power to shape their financial futures10. Banks can now tap into this, getting rid of outdated banking models. Remittances can happen easily, promoting financial inclusion10.

Thanks to blockchain, small villages can turn into business hubs. They connect to global markets, driving economic growth10. Blockchain’s inclusivity is key to economic progress in countries like India10.

Blockchain stands 5th globally in tech innovation. It’s changing everything from healthcare to logistics, leading companies to new achievements in data management11.

In human resources, blockchain verifies credentials truthfully11. In managing assets, it records every transaction accurately and permanently11.

Blockchain Reinventing Security

See blockchain as a meeting point of technology and trust. It boosts efficient business, secure dealings, and promises a safe digital future. This future is powered by leaps in decentralized security and trust through encryption11.

Blockchain & Secure Transactions

Welcome to the world of digital security made by experts in cryptography. We explore how blockchain keeps your digital assets safe and hidden. Let’s discover how this technology makes the internet a trusted place.

The Mechanics of Blockchain Security

Picture a vault so safe that each transaction is permanently recorded, visible only to key holders. Blockchain secures through unique cryptographic hashes2. These hashes connect all transactions, creating an unbreakable chain of records12.

The Unchangeable Nature of Blockchain

Blockchain’s ledger is truly permanent. Once data is saved, it can’t be changed, making it trustable for everyone. This certainty ensures data stays safe forever in the blockchain2.

Cryptography’s Role in Blockchain Transactions

Your transactions are locked safe, verified by digital signatures13. These signatures confirm ownership and safeguard every exchange in the digital world2.

In the digital age, blockchain security means your transactions are protected and truly yours2. With cryptography, digital signatures, and immutability, blockchain changes how we see security online13.

How does blockchain technology benefit different sectors? Here’s a table showcasing its wide impact:

Industry Blockchain Impact Example
Financial Services Reduces risks, lowers compliance costs Facilitation of immediate, cost-efficient transactions13
Healthcare Transforms patient outcomes with secure data sharing Improved healthcare outcomes and data privacy2
Retail Enhances supplier relationships and traceability Streamlines supply-chain with smart contracts13
Food Supply Chain Traceability from farm to table Blockchain ensures food safety and origin tracking2
Oil & Gas Innovates supply chain management Optimizes logistics and mitigates fraud2

After learning about blockchain, you know your digital dealings are not just secure but deeply trusted. This means your assets are as safe as they should be.

Exploring the Consensus Mechanisms

Welcome to the core of blockchain tech, where consensus mechanisms make sure all transactions are agreed on. It’s akin to a digital vote where every check matters. We’ll see how these mechanisms are crucial for keeping blockchain transactions secure and valid.

Proof of Work Vs. Proof of Stake

Think of Proof of Work (PoW) as a dedicated miner, who solves tricky puzzles to confirm transactions and add new blocks. This process keeps the network safe and records new transactions on the blockchain. Still, it demands a lot of computer power and energy14.

Proof of Stake (PoS), on the other hand, selects validators in a sort of digital lottery based on their cryptocurrency stake. It uses less energy and speeds up transaction validation. Therefore, eco-friendly blockchain fans are starting to prefer PoS14.

Diving into Delegated Proof of Stake and Proof of Authority

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) enhances PoS to allow more scalable and democratic validation. Imagine electing trusted delegates in a meeting to validate transactions for others. DPoS focuses on speed and efficiency14.

Proof of Authority (PoA) focuses on validator identity for transaction validation. Validators are trusted figures, making PoA perfect for private networks that need a more personal validation touch14.

How Consensus Preserves the Blockchain Ecosystem

Consensus mechanisms knit the blockchain together, ensuring balance in reliability, accessibility, and partition tolerance – the CAP Theorem. This balance helps blockchain outperform traditional tech by achieving agreement, even amid failures14.

A study comparing blockchain structures with a review on its applications shows how crucial these mechanisms are in different fields, such as government and supply chain management. They greatly impact the design, challenges, and future directions of blockchain tech14.

The hard work of scholars reviewing around 60 documents helps us grasp blockchain’s enormous potential. Their research lets sectors like healthcare, law, and media aim for better security and transaction efficiency14.

Public vs Private: Types of Blockchain Networks

In the lively debate about public blockchain and private blockchain, different views exist. Some praise one and criticize the other. Yet, important truths are found in the discussion. It’s about finding what works best for you.

A public blockchain is big and open, like the ocean. It’s for everyone. Examples include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Cardano. These networks are decentralized and resist control15. They offer open access, meaning anyone with the internet can join in15. However, they use a lot of energy, which makes us think about their long-term use15.

Private blockchains, meanwhile, are more controlled. They’re like quiet, exclusive places. Only certain people can join networks like Morpheus Network, Patientory, and Corda. They promise better security and faster performance15. This setup is ideal for businesses needing tight control and quick scalability15.

Then there are permissioned networks. They’re a mix of both worlds. Access is granted by a gatekeeper. Networks like The Energy Web Chain and IBM Food Trust combine openness with privacy, adding an extra layer of security through controlled access15.

Blockchain Access Models

An Overview of Public Blockchain Networks

The public blockchains are gaining interest in the supply chain field. People are debating whether to choose public or private ones16. Public ones offer free access but they also consume a lot of energy. Plus, being open might not fit every company’s approach to new technologies like blockchain1615.

The Unique Attributes of Private Blockchains

Private blockchains are exclusive and sophisticated. They are chosen by companies wanting full control over their data. These networks are secure and flexible, meeting specific needs. Choosing a private blockchain can improve functionality, protect data, and enhance collaboration, which could give you an edge over competitors16.

Breaking Down Permissioned and Permissionless Models

Permissioned blockchains mix the best of private and public blockchains. They offer a balanced approach for those needing strict entry control. You can go for open access or opt for specific access rules. This choice will define how your blockchain operates and its level of security.

Blockchain Type Access Level Control Consensus Mechanism Use Case Examples
Public Permissionless Decentralized PoW Bitcoin, Ethereum
Private Permission-based Centralized Varies Morpheus Network, Patientory
Permissioned Limited access Centralized/Decentralized Varies IBM Food Trust, Nokia Data Marketplace

The blockchain journey you choose affects not only today but also your future. Make sure your choice matches your goals as you explore the exciting world of blockchain networks.

Blockchain Applications Across Industries

Welcome to a digital journey, where blockchain transformation changes the game in many fields. You might think it’s all about financial services, but it’s much more. Blockchain is shaking things up, from how we handle money to the way we think about our digital identity.

Blockchain Industry Applications

Blockchain combines many technologies to create a secure network. Transactions are extremely safe, without needing a bank17. It’s like having a high-security space right at home, but easier. This tech isn’t just for experts; it’s changing the game for many industries by building trust in a new way17.

In healthcare, blockchain keeps medical records safe and private17. It’s a big change, making sure that your health history is secure. While blockchain is doing great in finance by lowering costs, it faces big challenges, like staying secure and meeting rules17.

Worried about the ups and downs of cryptocurrencies? Meet stablecoins, your guard against wild value changes17. They’re not perfect, but they’re making the economy steadier. However, there’s a downside. These blockchain wonders could be hiding risky business and might not protect you as traditional finance does17. But there’s no need to panic yet.

The GAO is working on ways to smooth out blockchain’s rough edges. They’re all about stronger rules, better oversight, and teaching people how it all works. We’re moving towards a better blockchain world, just like in the best dreams17.

Industry Blockchain Application Notable Benefit
Financial Services Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Reduced costs, increased access
Healthcare Confidential Health Records Enhanced privacy and security
Identity Verification Self-Sovereign Identity Tamper-proof digital identities

As a digital expert, you see blockchain’s vast potential. Despite uncertainties, it’s clear blockchain can solve big issues. It’s leading us to a world where tech smoothly fits into our lives17. Smart policies will help us get the best from blockchain while avoiding the downsides17.

The Evolution of Smart Contracts

Our digital world is getting more complex. Smart contracts stand out by automating tasks that used to need lots of manual work. You might have heard about them. But the magic that happens with these contracts is quite amazing. They’re changing the way we automate business.

Smart Contracts: Definition and Functionality

Picture a world where contracts run themselves, and paperwork is no longer needed. That world is made possible by smart contracts. These are programs that fulfill contract terms automatically. They work on places like the Ethereum network, which processes actions every 16 seconds18. This makes sure contracts move along fast and without problems.

Implementing Smart Contracts in Business Processes

Using blockchain contracts might seem tough at first. But, platforms like Etherparty make it easy. They let you make smart contracts on networks like Ethereum and Rootstock without coding. This is great for people not familiar with technology18. This easy way of integrating smart contracts can automate complex business tasks reliably.

Benefits and Challenges of Smart Contracts

Smart contracts are powerful. They can save money, time, and increase transparency in many areas. Gartner thinks they will be a big part of the digital world19. But, there are challenges, like security issues seen in The DAO and Parity18. It’s crucial to keep testing and checking them legally20. This is important for successful innovation.

  1. Smart Contracts streamline complex business transactions19.
  2. They have the capacity to drastically reduce inter-firm transaction costs19.
  3. Platforms like Etherparty make the creation and implementation of smart contracts accessible to all18.
  4. Major companies and institutions like Maersk and JPMorgan Chase are recognizing and investing in their potential19.
  5. Ricardian Adaptive Smart Contracts are paving the way for contracts that are both human-readable and easily indexed for machine use18.
Smart Contract Benefit Statistical Data Insight
Transactional Speed RSK achieves up to 100 transactions per second18
Coding Simplicity Etherparty allows smart contract creation sans coding knowledge18
Security Enhancement Security measures include rigorous testing and audits20
Cost Efficiency Smart contracts may greatly reduce transaction costs19
Market Adaptability Smart contracts are suitable for simple transactions with predictable contingencies19

Thinking about the future of contracts? Your business could be close to a big change. With the right strategy, smart contracts could lead to big improvements in efficiency and security. This is what business automation is all about. But, reaching this point comes with its own set of challenges. Make smart moves, and you could change how your business works digitally.

Blockchain Technology and the Global Economy

Imagine a world where blockchain is more than a buzzword. It’s a vital part of the global economy. This shift is big. It’s about making financial inclusion better and changing economic infrastructure. Blockchain isn’t just for the few. It’s spreading an economic revolution everywhere, especially where it’s needed most.

Around the world, there are over 25,000 kinds of cryptocurrencies21. That shows blockchain’s impact. In El Salvador, Bitcoin became legal money. Though only 5% of sales used Chivo Wallet21, it’s a sign of big changes. Every small step is part of a bigger journey toward economic change.

In India, ConsenSys Ventures teamed up with the government. They’re using blockchain for land records21. Kenya is using IBM’s blockchain for micro-finance loans21. This move makes it easier for people to get loans. Nigeria is using blockchain to keep the River Niger clean by tracking pollutants21. This idea is forward-thinking.

Haiti is also getting in on blockchain. The government wants to use it for real estate deals21. A project is helping farmers get paid directly through blockchain. This leads to better traceability and honesty in agriculture21.

Region Blockchain Initiative Impact Objective
India Blockchain in government administration Enhanced transparency and efficiency
Kenya Blockchain-enabled lending platform Financial empowerment of vendors
Nigeria Blockchain for environmental management Improved ecosystem monitoring
Haiti Blockchain in exports and currency exploration Strengthened economic resilience

Now, let’s think bigger. Paul Domjan at Tellimer says emerging economies will benefit most from blockchain21. They’re facing big challenges bravely. It’s not about if blockchain will change things; it’s about when and how it will make the global economy better for everyone.

Emerging economies are the most promising beneficiaries of blockchain technology due to their specific needs and existing challenges. – Paul Domjan

So, are you ready for the blockchain influence to change how money works? Get ready. It’s not just coming—it’s already here, changing the game.

Challenges and Considerations in Blockchain Adoption

Exploring the world of blockchain can be tough, but exciting too. This journey is like guiding a ship through a storm. So, here’s your guide to making it through.

Scalability Issues in Blockchain Systems

Trying to scale blockchain brings up big challenges. Imagine too many cars on a single road, causing delays. That’s what happens with too many transactions22. Also, the energy needed for blockchain can harm the environment22.

Regulatory Hurdles in Blockchain Implementation

Heading into blockchain means facing legal challenges. Blockchain operates in new legal areas, needing rules that support innovation23. Some think fixing these issues is like updating a business plan23. But combining blockchain and regulations is complex, like oil and water not mixing easily.

Privacy Concerns with Blockchain Technology

Navigating privacy issues in blockchain is tricky. It’s about keeping data safe while allowing some transparency2324. Information on the blockchain needs strong protection but must be available to some23.

Despite these challenges, with the right knowledge and tools, you can navigate through. Blockchain holds uncharted waters of opportunity for the brave. It’s your journey to take, just watch for obstacles222324.

Challenge Impact Possible Solutions
Scalability Slows transaction speed Layered networks, sharding techniques
Energy Consumption Environmental concerns Alternative consensus mechanisms
Regulatory Uncertain compliance Advocacy for blockchain-friendly laws
Privacy Data exposure risks Enhanced encryption methods
Interoperability Platform fragmentation Standardized protocols

Blockchain is an exciting new frontier, full of promise. As we move towards adoption, let’s get ready despite any hurdles. Set your sails for the great adventure of blockchain!

Blockchain’s Role in the Legal Landscape and Compliance

Exploring blockchain’s world is like learning a new dance. We must understand how innovation works with regulation. Blockchain is changing the legal world, much like a jazz band in a concert hall. It brings something new with intellectual property and smart contracts. But, it must follow the law’s established rules.

Understanding Blockchain Compliance with Current Laws

Blockchain legal compliance is like stepping into a digital journey. Huge investments are flowing into blockchain development25. It’s important to match this financial growth with legal standards. Legal experts work hard to balance innovation with following the law. They focus on new challenges like DAOs and DeFi platforms.

Blockchain and Intellectual Property Concerns

Intellectual property in blockchain is a big deal. With new ways to create and share content25, lawyers need to protect intellectual property. They tackle questions of ownership and how to guard digital art from being copied or shared without permission.

Smart Contracts and Their Legal Implications

Understanding smart contracts and their legal side is essential. These contracts can change the cost of legal services26 and improve productivity, making a big economic impact26. Still, they must meet legal standards. Making sure these contracts fit within legal rules builds trust in blockchain’s future.


What is Blockchain Technology?

Think of blockchain technology as a team project. It’s a network of computers where transactions are recorded. Secure and open, it does away with middlemen.

How does Blockchain function in various industries?

Blockchain is not just for buying digital money. It improves safety and efficiency in many fields, like finance and healthcare. It ensures that products are genuine.

Who is Satoshi Nakamoto and what’s their role in blockchain’s history?

The mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto wrote the Bitcoin whitepaper in 2008. They introduced blockchain for digital cash, creating endless online transaction possibilities.

Could you explain these ‘blocks’ and ‘chains’ in blockchain architecture?

Imagine blockchain as a digital Jenga game. Each block has transactions inside. They’re securely glued together in order, preventing fraud.

What makes blockchain a beacon of trust and security?

Blockchain is highly secure, thanks to unchangeable records and complex codes. It uses unique digital signatures and group agreement for security. It’s like an unbreakable promise.

Can you break down the mechanics of blockchain security?

Picture your transactions as secret messages. They’re locked away and linked to the last one securely. And everyone agrees on them, making tampering impossible.

Proof of Work or Proof of Stake: Which is the better consensus mechanism?

Proof of Work is a competition to solve problems. Proof of Stake is like betting on digital value. Both have their perks, but Proof of Stake is less energy-heavy.

What distinguishes a public blockchain from a private one?

Public blockchains are open to all, like a communal space. Private blockchains are exclusive clubs with strict entry, offering privacy and control.

How are smart contracts evolving business processes?

Smart contracts automate legal agreements on the blockchain. They act immediately when conditions are met. They streamline business, cutting through delays and bureaucracy.

What role does blockchain play in reshaping the global economy?

Blockchain is changing the economy by removing financial barriers, fast-tracking international payments, and offering savings. It’s truly a worldwide change-maker!

What are the main challenges in blockchain adoption?

Blockchain adoption faces issues like scalability, legal uncertainties, and privacy concerns. It’s like fitting a large octopus into a small bowl – tricky.

How is blockchain shaking up the legal landscape and compliance requirements?

Blockchain challenges existing legal frameworks, raises questions about smart contracts, and navigates through decentralized compliance. Lawyers need to adapt to these changes.

Source Links

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  2. https://www.ibm.com/topics/blockchain
  3. https://www.financemagnates.com/cryptocurrency/education-centre/demystifying-blockchain/
  4. https://www.wcl.american.edu/news-events/news/new-auwcl-initiative-aims-to-demystify-blockchain-technology/
  5. https://www.icaew.com/technical/technology/blockchain-and-cryptoassets/blockchain-articles/what-is-blockchain/history
  6. https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/feature/A-timeline-and-history-of-blockchain-technology
  7. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbuil.2022.840303
  8. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/13/20/11533
  9. https://www.irjmets.com/uploadedfiles/paper//issue_5_may_2022/23989/final/fin_irjmets1711954442.pdf
  10. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbloc.2023.1035405
  11. https://www.datasciencecentral.com/how-blockchain-technology-is-transforming-the-business/
  12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockchain
  13. https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/mckinsey-explainers/what-is-blockchain
  14. https://ijettjournal.org/archive/ijett-v71i5p204
  15. https://forkast.news/what-are-public-private-permissioned-blockchains/
  16. https://widgets.weforum.org/blockchain-toolkit/structure-public-private/index.html
  17. https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-104625
  18. https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidpetersson/2018/10/24/how-smart-contracts-started-and-where-they-are-heading/
  19. https://cmr.berkeley.edu/2023/02/beyond-the-blockchain-technology-hype-when-does-it-make-sense-to-use-smart-contracts/
  20. https://www.britannica.com/money/how-smart-contracts-work
  21. https://www.investopedia.com/tech/how-blockchain-can-help-failing-economies/
  22. https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2023/04/14/the-5-biggest-problems-with-blockchain-technology-everyone-must-know-about/
  23. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/Innovation/deloitte-uk-blockchain-key-challenges.pdf
  24. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/13/4/2380
  25. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Tax/dttl-tax-global-blockchain-wp-sept-2022.pdf
  26. https://www.lw.com/en/insights/blockchain-legal-and-regulatory-guidance

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